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Wednesday, 23 April 2014

SANITATION: NEED OF THE DAY

SANITATION: NEED OF THE DAY
BY: NEHA SAROHA
A plate laden with three large rotis topped with a generous helping of spicy dal (lentils) is laid infront of Roshni. She is hungry, but will not eat it yet. While her husband and two teenage sons quickly polish off what is on their plates, she puts away her plate. "Yes, I am hungry. I have not eaten since morning, but if I eat now I will have to go to the toilet by the time the food is digested and there is always a long queue at the washroom. We have just two toilets for women in this camp. So I eat only one meal a day, to minimise the number of visits to the toilet," she says.
The women affected by the limited access to toilet facilities confess that the only solution available is to ensure that their need to use a toilet is reduced as far as possible which means avoiding water even      whilst thirsty. This in turn means that their health suffers, because denying the body sufficient fluid intake can result in kidney problems and other serious illnesses. These health hazards are in addition to those that both men and women, as displaced persons in relief camps, face in terms of unsatisfactory living conditions. Echoing this point of view, the women of one family affected by the earthquake in Gujarat said, "We can speak boldly about the lack of sheets and pillows and blankets, but somehow find it difficult to bring ourselves to mention toilets. That is a subject we are not supposed to mention, it's not done. It is considered improper, unbecoming. Sharam aathi hai (we feel ashamed)." "Sharam" (shame) is considered a woman's precious ornament, even if it means attending to perfectly natural and normal functions. And that continues to be so, even today!

Is anybody really surprised that nearly half of India's 1.2 billion people have no toilet at home?
Open defecation is rife, and remains a major impediment in achieving millennium development goals which include reducing by half the proportion of people without access to basic sanitation by 2015. Mahatma Gandhi, India's greatest leader,  once inspected toilets in the city of Rajkot in Gujarat and reported that they were "dark, stinking and reeking with filth and worms" in the homes of the wealthy and the  temples. Moreover, the homes of the untouchables had no toilets at all. "Latrines are for you big people," an untouchable told Gandhi.
India's enduring shame is clearly rooted in cultural attitudes. Even after more than 60 years of Independence, many Indians continue to relieve themselves in the open and litter unhesitatingly, but keep their homes spotlessly clean. Yes, the state has failed to extend sanitation facilities, but its high time that people should also take the blame.
Illnesses caused by germs and worms in faeces, wastes and pollutants are constant source of discomfort for millions of people. Poor sanitation is something that not only affects the health of the people of the country, but also affects the economic and social development of the nation. Most cities and towns in India are characterized by over-crowding, congestion, inadequate water supply, and inadequate facilities of disposal of human excreta, wastewater and solid wastes. Fifty five percent of India’s population (nearly 600 million people) has no access to toilets.

Proper sanitation refers to principles, practices, provisions, or services related to cleanliness and hygiene in personal and public life for the protection and promotion of human health and well being and breaking the cycle of disease or illness. It is also related to the principles and practices relating to the collection, treatment, removal or disposal of human excreta, household waste water and other pollutants. The World Health Organization states that: Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities.

A study conducted by World Bank’s ‘South Asia Water and Sanitation Unit’ estimated that India loses Rs 240 billion annually due to lack of proper sanitation facilities. The multilateral body said that premature deaths, treatment for the sick and loss of productivity and revenue from tourism were the main factors behind the significant economic loss. Poor sanitation is something that not only affects the health of the people of the country, but also affects the development of the nation. In fact, women are most affected by the hazards of lack of proper sanitation. For instance, in India majority of the girls drop out of school because of lack of toilets. Only 22% of them manage to even complete class 10. On economic grounds, according to the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, more than Rs 12 billion is spent every year on poor sanitation and its resultant illnesses.

Until there is shift in the mindset of people to a point where they actually believe that “Cleanliness is next to Godliness”, nothing is going to change.


Wednesday, 9 April 2014

Dying In Manhole



At least two to three workers must be dying every day inside manholes across India .

In most developed countries, manhole workers are provided bunny suits and respiratory apparatus. In Hong Kong, a sewer worker needs to have 15 licences in order to enter a manhole. In India, conservancy workers – mostly from the balmiki subcaste of dalits -- go in almost naked. The mortality rate amongst them is a
According to a 2002 report prepared by the International Dalit Solidarity Network -- which includes Human Rights Watch (United States), Navsarjan Trust (Ahmedabad, Gujarat), and the National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights, the government estimates that there are 1 million dalit manual scavengers in India.ppallingly high.
At the very least, 22,327 Dalits die every year cleaning sewage.
Human beings shrink from any contact with faecal matter. We are paranoid about stepping on shit even accidentally, with our shoes on. If it does happen, we rush to wash the offending substance off the soles of our shoes. Can we even begin to comprehend the experience that thousands of balmiki men go through every day of their lives?
There are no sewerage facilities in rural areas, Urban Slums are also not touched by proper sewerage facilities .Still workers manually clean the septic tanks, “these septic tanks are becoming death tanks for the workers”.  It is full of many poisonous and dangerous gases, many people are died by inhaling poisonous gases and many of them going to die if we would not stop this Dehumanising Practices.Many of them are the sole bread winners of their families .These dependents were force by social and economic conditions to come into these practices to feed their families. Most of the Manual Scavengers belongs to SC & ST, last year MHA (Ministry Of Home Affairs) told to all states that engaging or employing a member in SC or ST in manual scavenging fall within the ambit of SC & ST prevention of Atrocities Act, but there is no record of any one being convicted under this Act.There are poor Sanitation Facilities in these places. People are still using dry latrines which encourage Manual Scavenging. We have to stop the dry latrines practices and help them in making Proper Sanitation Facilities.

A manhole is a confined, oxygen-deficient space where the presence of noxious gases can cause syncope -- a sudden and transient loss of consciousness owing to brief cessation of cerebral blood flow. The brain cannot tolerate even a brief deprivation of oxygen. The long-term neurological effects of syncope can be debilitating.”In most developed countries, manhole workers are protected by bunny suits to avoid contact with the contaminated water. They also sport respiratory apparatus. The sewers are well lit, mechanically aerated with huge fans and therefore not so oxygen-deficient. In Hong Kong, a sewer worker, after adequate training, needs to have at least 15 licences and permits in order to enter a manhole. In India, our sanitation workers go in almost naked, wearing just a lungot (loincloth) or briefs. In Delhi, in accordance with the directives of the National Human Rights Commission in October 2002, most permanent workers of the DJB wear a ‘safety belt’. This belt that connects workers in the manhole, via thick ropes, to men standing outside offers no protection against the gases and sharp objects that assault them. It’s a cruel joke; at best it helps haul them out should they lose consciousness or die inside the hole. The CEC study of 200 DJB manhole workers found that 92.5% of workers wore the safety belt. But this did not prevent 91.5% of them suffering injuries, and 80% suffering eye infections.
Manual scavengers are exposed to the most virulent forms of viral and bacterial infections that affect the skin, eyes, limbs, respiratory and gastro-intestinal systems. Reports show that tuberculosis is rife among the community.Most men in the community die young; indeed, the average lifespan of a sanitation worker is 45 years. The civic body does not offer any monetary compensation to these workers for illness or death due to occupational risks, unless the worker actually dies inside a manhole, In Delhi, permanent workers get a monthly ‘risk allowance’ of Rs 50. In some states, the figure rises to Rs 200.

“We pervert reason when we humiliate life … man stopped respecting himself when he lost the respect due to his fellow-creatures.”— José Saramago
Sewage travels across Delhi’s 5,600- kilometre sewer lines at the speed of one metre per second. That is a rather leisurely pace of 3.6 km per hour — the time an obese person may take to complete one round of Lodi Gardens. Along this river of filth — the Ganga is just half this length — there are 1.5 lakh manholes servicing the effluents released by the capital’s 15 million people. Much of this ‘infrastructure’ was designed more than a 100 years ago. According to an estimate I made in 2007, at least 22,327 men and women die in India every year doing various kinds of sanitation work. Figures are hard to come by since this concerns the deaths of a section of population that most of India refuses to see. Santosh Choudhary, then chairperson of the National Commission for Safai Karamcharis, had told me in 2007 that at least “two to three workers must be dying every day inside manholes across India.”
On the morning of March 27, Bezwada Wilson of the Safai Karmachari Andolan (SKA) sent a message to his well-wishers about the impending ruling of the Supreme Court in a Public Interest Litigation that had dragged on for 12 years. All that SKA had been seeking was the enforcement of fundamental rights guaranteed in the Constitution under Articles 14 (Right to Equality), 17 (Abolition of untouchability), 21 (Protection of life and personal liberty) and 47 (Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health).
Judgment with a caveat
THE WORLD BENEATH: At least two to three workers must be dying every day inside manholes across India. Picture shows a worker entering a manhole in Chennai. Photo: B. Jothi RamalingamLater in the day, the three-judge Supreme Court Bench headed by the Chief Justice, P. Sathasivam, issued directions to the state, the railways, and several organisations to implement the provisions of the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013 — itself a result of SKA’s relentless efforts. While everyone congratulated Mr. Wilson and the SKA team, a part of me froze at the sight of a certain clause in the judgment.
After ruling that “entering sewer lines without safety gears should be made a crime even in emergency situations,” the Bench added a caveat: “For each such death, compensation of Rs. 10 lakhs should be given to the family of the deceased.”
This, in effect, is like saying these deaths — rather murders — will continue to happen. They are inevitable. They are murders, for we know that each time a person enters these oxygen-deficient dungeons that spew a mixture of hydrogen sulphide, methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, there’s a good possibility he will die. Yet, the highest court of the land condoned these murders by merely offering compensation. Given that sewer workers anyway are considered socially dead because of their occupation, their legal death is just a matter of record. What kind of ‘safety gear’ can ensure that a person socially survives such an ordeal? Can there be a just way of being unjust? We reason with ourselves to accept the perversion of reason.
Law apparently has an answer for such a conundrum, derived from the Latin maxim: quod feri non debuit factum valet, also known as factum valet. “What ought not have been done is valid once it is done.” Dayabhaga, the 12th century brahmanic law that was prevalent in the eastern parts of the subcontinent, echoes this maxim when its says, “A fact cannot be altered by a hundred texts.” Ideally, don’t send a man into a sewer, but if you have to send him, make sure he wears safety gear. And if he dies after that, give his family 10 lakh rupees. If he refuses to wear safety gear that weighs 18 kilos and gum boots that gnaw at his toes, that’s his problem. Ideally, sati or child marriage should not be committed, but when it happens, we can always have eminent social scientists tell us why we need to understand the difference between pratha (custom) and ghatana (event).
No change on the ground
What is the point of laws, and judgements to back these laws, when the situation on the ground or rather beneath the ground has not changed? Urban India is serviced by four-inch house drains that empty into nine-inch trunk sewers that carry the slush to bigger lines of 2-metres to 3-metres in diameter. These make it necessary for a human being to be lowered into a drain. A clog demands at least three entries into a manhole: to fix the cleansing rod, to make it work, and to detach it.
In 2002, the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission envisaged spending Rs. 1,20,536 crore over seven years on urban local bodies. Of this, 40 per cent was allotted for drainage and sewerage work. Thousands of crores have been likely spent on laying or relaying pipes and drains designed to kill. Phases 1 and 2 of Delhi’s metro cost Rs. 30,000 crore. While the metro works, the sewage system continues to foul the air all around us.
Meanwhile, each sewer worker’s death will cause something to die in us. A million rupees is a very small price we are agreeing to pay to stop respecting ourselves.


Edited By : Sonika 








Source:     http://infochangeindia.org/livelihoods/sidelines/dying-for-a-living.html
                : the hindu 
http://heeals.blogspot.in/2012/05/septic-tanks-or-death-tanks_01.html?showComment=1397027323754#c4129649402246157387




Sunday, 9 March 2014

HAPPY INTERNATIONAL WOMEN’S DAY

Today’s women over come from all the traditional beliefs that degrade her status in society. She has beaten all the oppression & Suppression which comes in their way. Empowerment Of Women Promotes Gender Equality. Join Us To End The Gender Biasness #IWD 2014.







Friday, 21 February 2014

“Water – The Most Precious Resource of the Solar System”

 “Water – The Most Precious Resource of the Solar System”



By Gaurav Kashyap
Gurgaon ,INDIA
21st February2014
Website: www.heeals.org


Water is Life, Water is Death!

Water is one of the most precious elements of life on the planet. It is critical for satisfying the basic human needs, health, food production, energy and maintenance of regional and global ecosystems. Over 70% of the human body is made up of water, A human being may survive without food for several days but water deprivation can kill a person with in a matter of hours. Life is, therefore, tied to water, as it is tied to air and food. And food is indeed tied to water. Almost 80% of diseases in so called "developing" countries are associated with water, causing some three million early deaths. For example, 5,000 children die every day from diarrhea, or one every 17 seconds. According to the most recent UN estimate the human population of the world is expected to reach 8 billion people in the spring of 2024.Due to water scarcity is estimated to cause annual global losses Of 350 million tons of food productions by 2025.


“Most Precious Resource of the Solar System”

Due to the presence of water on earth it became the only planet in the solar system which supports life. Only 2.5% of world water is not salty but covered in the form of lce caps. Only 0.08 of 1% of the total water on the planet. Which supports Human, Planet and Animal. It is really a precious resource indeed. Rise in population putting a severe strain on the fresh water resources. The acute water problem is not only affecting developing countries but also developed countries. There is huge inequality of water use in between developing & developed countries. In North America residential area per person uses about 600 liters of water. In Japan & Europe, it is 250 lit. & 300 lit. More or less respectively. Whereas per capita water use per day in sub Sahara region is 10 liters. In India per capita of water use is less than 50 lit. It is reckoned that one fresh of a toilet in developing countries use as much water as the average person in the developing world use for a whole day in washing, drinking, cleaning & cooking.
“No single measure would do more to reduce disease and save lives in the developing world then bringing safe water and adequate sanitation” (Kofi Annan).



Wastages of water

Wastages of water are the one of the biggest reason for depletion of fresh water sources. 70% of the world’s water worldwide, agriculture accounts for 70% of all water consumption, compared to 20% for industry and 10% for domestic use. In industrialized nations, however, industries consume more than half of the water available for human use. Freshwater withdrawals have tripled over the last 50 years. Demand for freshwater is increasing by 64 billion cubic meters a year (1 cubic meter = 1,000 liters)
The world’s population is growing by roughly 80 million people each year. Changes in lifestyles and eating habits in recent years are requiring more water consumption per capita. The production of bio-fuels has also increased sharply in recent years, with significant impact on water demand. Between 1,000 and 4,000 liters of water are needed to produce a single liter of bio-fuel. Energy demand is also accelerating, with corresponding implications for water demand.

Water shortage
Water shortage & lack of access to safe drinking water will lead to next generation world war, if appropriate measures are not taken immediately, the world would soon face threat like shortage of food supply, environment degradation& health risk for billions of people. Water shortage will leads to conflicts among human & animals. There are many incidents of fights between people over water. Humans are encroaching animal water sources, which leads to conflict between man & animals. Which leads to human’s casualty by animals. We have to stop it before it becomes worse. There are many incidents where families fought over water. Sometimes these fights take lives of people. According to UN by 2025 as many as 500 crore of people will be facing water shortage as many as 270 crore will face sever water shortage. If the world continue consuming water at the present rate.
World’s population is now more than 7 billion and continues to grow by 82 million people per year. Currently the rate of population increase is 1.2 % per year which means the human population is on a trajectory to double again in 58 year.
“Fierce national competition over water resources has prompted fears that water issues contain the seeds of violent conflict “Kofi Annan .

Water and Global Security
In adequate availability of water, food and energy is critical to global security. Water and other natural resource will shape our future policies, those who have plenty of water and other natural resource will govern the world. The United Nation in 2010 recognized access to safe, affordable water & sanitation as a Human Right .Yet the reality remains stark .More people today own or use mobile phone than have regular access to a toilet. Unclean water is the greatest killer on the globe. Claiming thousands of children’s lives every day. Yet many people still lacks easy access to portable water. More than half of the global population currently lives under water stress. Water is renewable but infinite resource. Nature’s fixed water –replenishment capacity limits the world’s renewable freshwater resources to about 43,000 billion cubic meters per year.
Saying of Mark Twain is fit in current water situation.“Whiskey is for drinking and water is for fighting over “Mark Twain.
Struggle for water put great impact on the earth’s ecosystem. Degradation of water resource putting aquatic life in danger. Groundwater depletion is affecting groundwater led wetlands, lakes, underground natural stream and water table. Water degradation will make our cities run out of water. Sana ‘city in Yemen becoming the first capital city to run out of water. Water shortage poses a major problem for a society than oil crisis, economic slowdown other challenges. In modern times California is going through its worst water crisis.

Conflict V/s Humanitarian Water Policy.
Water policy of a country plays an important role in defining global presence. To show there global power powerful countries put a conflict water policy instead of Humanitarian water policy. Conflict water policy put powerless country in less advantage stage. For example, Bangladesh is bearing the main impact of continuous building up of dams on Brahmaputra. Putting later water management in their hands .Conflicts over water are increasing .Water wars are common in several regions. Egypt  military threat against Ethiopian’s ongoing construction of dam on Blue Nile. The use of water as a weapon of war of terrorism would become more likely on the next decade. Setting up new manufacturing and energy plants in inadequate water areas often triggers local protest. One such example is the POSCO steel plant in Odisha(India). Water stressed economies like India, Iran Egypt and South Korea are paying high prices for their water problem. Globally economic losses from water are estimated at $ 260 Billion. South Korea is encouraging its corporate giants to produce water –intensive items – from food to steel –for the home market in overseas lands. China facing water paucity in its arid north, slipping into the category of water – stressed states. Internal Water resource conflict will create civil wars, Sudan is one such example. 


Water V/s Oil
With era of cheap, bountiful water having been replaced by increasing supply and quality constraints mainly international investors are beginning to view water as the new oil. Looking ahead, water shortage is not only going to intensify and spread but users also will have to increasingly pay more for their water supply.
Water crisis can be overcome by adopting smart water management and sustainable use of water resources. To Avert Water Wars & becoming the world’s next major social, political and economic challenge, we need to adopt water laws nationally and internationally. To settle the water sharing dispute peacefully & amicably

" Frequent Fights On Water"
There is a water crisis In Uttar Pradesh’s hamirpur district, The Energy and Research Institute
(TERI), found that around 162,000 village in India face the problem of brackish or contaminated water. Mamana, with a population of 4,387 is clearly one of them. People in Mamana can recognise the hardness in the water easily enough. If they use soap, they will find that it does not lather and instead leaves a white deposit on the body. If they leave water standing in a glass for a while, a stain forms around the water’s rim.Hardness in water comes from heavy metals and minerals that have made their way into the water from sedimentary rocks, seepage or farm runoff. Substances like calcium and magnesium, emerging from limestone and chalk deposits found in soil have a presence in the water. The ill-effects of the drinking hard water are found in the whole in Hamirpur. “Many people here complain of pain in one side of their stomach and it is said that is because of Kidney stones caused by the poor quality of drinking water.”Mamana has 742 households, of which 369 are from the Schedule caste and 275 belong to other backward Classes. As in the rest of UP, caste determines every aspect of life, including the quality of water that reaches Dalits . Dalits and Muslims neighborhoods are the least serviced and the hardest hit when there is an acute shortage of water during the summer when temperatures soar to 45 degree Celsius.There is frequent fights on water , fights  break out of access the six wells that have sweet water and the water from the tankers. Those who are not so lucky to get that water ,have to drink the brackish water in the hand pumps, which cause serious illness to them , many of them get gastrointestinal problems .Women traditionally have been given the drudge task of collective water for all domestic purpose, including watering the cattle if there are any. The sight of women and young girls hauling pitchers and buckets is common enough but rarely can men be spotted doing similar activity.


Water Crisis

Principal cause of the Water Crisis is misuse of water & high water pollution level. In Agriculture irrigation use two –third of global fresh water. In developing countries 60% is wasted or used ineffiently. Major sources of water pollution are human wastes, industrial waste, hospital waste & chemicals & pesticides and fertilizers used for farmings .Water is not like oil. There is no substitutes, if continues to take it for granted, much of the earth is going to run short of water or food or both.

How we can overcome from Water Crisis?
1. Conserving water and using water efficiently.
2 .Improving Irrigation technologies for farming
3. Recycling of waste water (Israel reuses nearly 65% of its domestic waste water for crop production and frees up fresh water for household and industries.
4. Rain water harvesting.
5. Water development & management   (these measures have to be taken on a war footing).


Today we have to deal with quality as well as management of Water
Water, sanitation, hygiene, environment & health are the most important issue for the development of society. To make it available for our future generation we have to give more importance to quality as well as management of resources. “Water is life but if it contaminated it cause death “. About 80% of all disease in the developing countries is caused by unsafe water & sanitation. Some of the deadly diseases are born in unsafe water & unhygienic sanitation condition. Every year millions of people around the world die just became of unsafe Water, Sanitation & Hygiene. Every day thousand of child is dying from poor quality of water & unhygienic sanitation facilities. Many of them became mentally unsound. Clean drinking water and good hygiene sanitation facilities have a great impact on the central nervous system.
About 2000 year ago we have more fresh water on earth than today. From last 100 years, world’ population became tripled but our water use by humans has multiplied by six folds.




World Water vision
Was adopted in second world water form in Hague. Where it is recognize that water is life and has its goals, that every human being now and its future should have access to safe water for drinking appropriate sanitation and enough food and energy at reasonable cost. Providing adequate water to meet these basic needs must be done in an equitable manner that works in harmony with nature. For sustainable development of human being & nature, we must use water respectfully.



India In South Asia Regional Water Partnership
Under the global water partnership, regional water partnership has been established. South Asia regional water partnership comprises south Asian countries, India, Bangladesh, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Nepal .Its headquarters is in Bangladesh. India water partnership was officially established in 2000 with its headquarter in New Delhi .The Water and Power Consultancy Service of India (WAPCOS) a public sector wing of the Ministry Of Water Resources acts as a secretariat .


India Water Vision 2025
The steering committee of Indian Water Partnership prepared the Indian Water Vision document during 1998-2000. Report of Integrated Water Resources Plan development 1999 help in making the Indian water vision.Water vision will take account the availability of fresh water from various water resources and what is the present rate of consumption of it .Vision comprised the availability of safe drinking water for all ,near their households so that women and girls do not spend much time in fetching water , perception of water used for meeting the basic needs of cooking ,drinking and hygiene as a social good, equity in use of drinking water ,availability of food at affordable prices for the poorest ,minimum mortality and morbidity due to water related disease ,optimum use of water for irrigation as per agro –climatic condition ,existence of clean river and lakes and water bodies ,minimum flows in river and minimal inter-states disputes ,large dependence on rain water harvesting ,minimal pollution from industries and agriculture ,effective regional co –operation in sharing of water and energy resources and effective governance and decentralized management .In developing the vision for 2025 ,the key drivers such as population growth ,urbanization and emergence of mega cities ,economic growth ,zero poverty level and import of food grains have been used. The vision was developed to ensure a)Food security b)Livelihood c) Health Security d) Ecological security .The total estimated demand for water (Gross) for 2025 has been estimated at 1027 BCM. This would require an investment estimated at Rs 5000 billion during the coming 25 years.



By Gaurav Kashyap
21st-Feb-2014
Gurgaon(INDIA)










Source:
population media.org
UNNews center












Friday, 14 February 2014

Inadequate WASH Facilities Rising Illiteracy In INDIA


Inequality In Education
According to a report by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, India has the highest population of illiterate adults at 287 million
India has by far the largest population of illiterate adults at 287 million, amounting to 37 per cent of the global total, a United Nations report said highlighting the huge disparities existing in education levels of the country’s rich and poor.
The 2013/14 Education for All Global Monitoring Report said India’s literacy rate rose from 48 per cent in 1991 to 63 per cent in 2006, the latest year it has available data, but population growth cancelled the gains so there was no change in the number of illiterate adults.
India has the highest population of illiterate adults at 287 million, the report published by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation said.
The report further said that the richest young women in India have already achieved universal literacy but the poorest are projected to only do so around 2080, noting that huge disparities within India point to a failure to target support adequately towards those who need it the most.
“Post-2015 goals need to include a commitment to make sure the most disadvantaged groups achieve benchmarks set for goals. Failure to do so could mean that measurement of progress continues to mask the fact that the advantaged benefit the most,” the report added.
The report said that a global learning crisis is costing governments $ 129 billion a year. Ten countries account for 557 million, or 72 per cent, of the global population of illiterate adults.
Ten per cent of global spending on primary education is being lost on poor quality education that is failing to ensure that children learn.
This situation leaves one in four young people in poor countries unable to read a single sentence.
In one of India’s wealthier states, Kerala, education spending per pupil was about $ 685.
In rural India, there are wide disparities between richer and poorer states, but even within richer states, the poorest girls perform at much lower levels in mathematics.
In the wealthier states of Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, most rural children reached grade 5 in 2012.
However, only 44 per cent of these children in the grade 5 age group in Maharashtra and 53 per cent in Tamil Nadu could perform a two-digit subtraction.
Among rich, rural children in these states, girls performed better than boys, with around two out of three girls able to do the calculations.
Despite Maharashtra’s relative wealth, poor, rural girls there performed only slightly better than their counterparts in the poorer state of Madhya Pradesh.
Absence of adequate school infrastructure like improper Water Sanitation Menstrual Hygiene Facilities (WASH) one of the main factor affecting literacy in India. 
Reason For Low Literacy
 In addition ,there is  inefficient teaching staff  and there is no proper sanitation in most schools is one of the main factors affecting literacy in India. There is a shortage of classrooms to accommodate all the students in 2006–2007.  In addition,. The study of 188 government-run primary schools in central and northern India revealed that 59% of the schools had no drinking water facility and 89% no toilets. In 600,000 villages and multiplying urban slum habitats, 'free and compulsory education' is the basic literacy instruction dispensed by barely qualified 'para teachers'.The average Pupil Teacher Ratio for All India is 1:42, implying teacher shortage.[ Such inadequacies resulted in a non-standardized school system where literacy rates may differ. Furthermore, the expenditure allocated to education was never above 4.3% of the GDP from 1951–2002 despite the target of 6% by the Kothari Commission.This further complicates the literacy problem in India.
Severe caste disparities also exist. Discrimination of lower castes has resulted in high dropout rates and low enrolment rates. The National Sample Survey Organisation and the National Family Health Survey collected data in India on the percentage of children completing primary school which are reported to be only 36.8% and 37.7% respectively.On 21 February 2005, the Prime Minister of India said that he was pained to note that “only 47 out of 100 children enrolled in class I reach class VIII, putting the dropout rate at 52.78 per cent. It is estimated that at least 35 million, and possibly as many as 60 million, children aged 6–14 years are not in school.
Absolute poverty in India has also deterred the pursuit of formal education as education is not deemed of as the highest priority among the poor as compared to other basic necessities. The MRP-based (mixed recall period) poverty estimates of about 22% of poverty in 2004–05 which translated to 22 out of per 100 people are not meeting their basic needs, much less than meeting the need for education.
The large proportion of illiterate females is another reason for the low literacy rate in India. Inequality based on gender differences resulted in female literacy rates being lower at 65.46% than that of their male counterparts at 82.14%. Due to strong stereotyping of female and male roles, Sons are thought of to be more useful and hence are educated. Females are pulled to help out on agricultural farms at home as they are increasingly replacing the males on such activities which require no formal education.Fewer than 2% of girls who engaged in agriculture work attended school.

Female literacy Impact Indian Society

The development of any nation or region is indicated by the level of education and that too of both genders. That is why ‘education for all’ is strongly recommended and focused on by our government. India has made a considerable progress in this sector and with all the efforts the literacy rate grew to 74.04% in 2011 from meager 12% in 1947. But still, India has not achieved what it should have during this period. First of all, the progress made in this sector is very slow. Secondly, there a considerable gap between male and female literacy rates in India. It has been estimated that at the current rate of progress, India will attain universal literacy only until 2060. As per the census of 2011, an effective literacy rate for men was 82.14% whereas for women it was 65.46%. Though there has been seen a substantial increase in the number of literate women and this gap is narrowing, it still persists. Among such figures, there exists a ray of hope as well. According to the 2011 census, since year 2011, 110 million additional women had become literate as compared to 107 men that means that the number of literate women is increasing. Females constitute about 50% of country’s human resource but lack of education snatches their chance to be a part of the progress and development of India. This means our pace of progress is less than the required pace. Even if females do not use education to work, total illiteracy has a huge negative impact on our society.
There is a dramatic difference in the female literacy rate based on various regions in India. Female literacy rate in urban areas is higher as compared to rural India. In Rajasthan, most of the rural women are illiterate.
Kerala has the highest female literacy rate (92% as per 2011 census) whereas Rajasthan (52.7% as per 2011 census) has the lowest female literacy rate in India. States such as Uttar Pradesh (59.3% as per 2011 census) and Bihar (53.3% as per 2011 census) that are the most populated states in India show low levels of female literacy. This is directly related to the health and infant mortality. Kerala has the lowest infant mortality whereas states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh have a high mortality rate.

Low female literacy rate means an overall sluggish growth of India, as it impacts every arena of the development. India is struggling hard to stabilize its growing population through family planning programs. But if females are illiterate, then this has a direct and negative impact on these initiatives.
When a girl or a woman is not educated, it is not only she who suffers but the entire family has to bear the consequences of her illiteracy. It has been found out that illiterate women face more hardships in life than literate ones. They have high levels of fertility as well as mortality; they suffer from malnutrition and all other related health problems. In one of the surveys, it has been found out that infant mortality is inversely related to mother’s educational level. In such a scenario not only women but their kids also go through the same conditions. She, who does not know the importance of education in life, does not emphasize the same for her kids. This hampers the family as well as the nation’s progress as a whole.
Lack of education means lack of awareness. Illiterate women are not aware of their rights. They know nothing about initiatives taken by the government for their welfare. Illiterate women keep on struggling hard and bear harshness of life, family and even their husbands.
The negative attitude of parents towards the girl child and her education is one of the major reasons of low female literacy rate in India. In most of the families, boys at home are given priority in terms of education but girls are not treated in the same way. Right from the beginning, parents do not consider girls as earning members of their family, as after marriage they have to leave their parents’ home. So their education is just considered as a wastage of money as well as time. For this reason, parents prefer to send boys to schools but not girls.
Poverty is the root cause of many problems in India and also of low female literacy rate. More than one-third of population in India is living below the poverty line. Though government is putting efforts to make the primary education free but still parents are not ready to send their girls to school. To this is connected the accessibility to schools. In most of the rural areas lack of easy accessibility to school is another reason for low female literacy rate. Parents do not prefer to send girls to schools if these are located at a far distance from their village or home. Even if schools are there then lack of adequate school facilities becomes a hurdle. Some of the schools are really in pathetic conditions and do not have even basic facilities. As per a survey, 54% of schools in Uttar Pradesh do not have water facility and 80% do not have latrine facilities. Even some schools do not have enough rooms to accommodate all the students.
Another barrier to female education in India is the lack of female teachers. As India is a gender segregated society, it is a very important factor in the low female literacy rate in India.
But in spite of all reasons, women must understand and realize that education can actually end the vivacious cycle of poverty, their misfortune, so that they can live a life with pride. In case of any misfortune in life, it is education that would help her, not anything else. The government should really work towards the number, distance and quality of schools in rural as well as urban India. We should encourage the girl child in getting education to create a balanced and an educated society.

Global learning crisis is costing $129 billion a year
Some 125 million school children around the world are unable to read a single sentence, even after four years of attendance – a waste of $129 billion a year – a United Nations report warned today, calling on Governments to draft the best teachers to teach the most underprivileged if the goal of universal education is ever to be reached.
“This learning crisis has costs not only for the future ambitions of children, but also for the current finances of Governments,” says the independent Education for All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report Teaching and Learning: Achieving Quality for All,commissioned by the the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
“Around 250 million children are not learning basic skills, even though half of them have spent at least four years in school. The annual cost of this failure: around 129 billion,” it says, noting that in around a third of countries, less than 75 per cent of primary school teachers are trained according to national standards. Some 57 million children are not in school at all.
The report proposes four strategies to provide the best teachers to reach all children with a good quality education: selecting the right teachers to reflect the diversity of the children; training teachers to support the weakest learners from the earliest grades; overcoming inequalities by allocating the best teachers to the most challenging parts of a country; and providing teachers with the right mix of Government incentives to remain in the profession and ensure all children are learning, regardless of their circumstances.
“These policy changes have a cost,” UNESCO Director-General Irina Bokova says in a forword. “This is why we need to see a dramatic shift in funding. Basic education is currently underfunded by $26 billion a year, while aid is continuing to decline. At this stage, Governments simply cannot afford to reduce investment in education – nor should donors step back from their funding promises. This calls for exploring new ways to fund urgent needs.”
Noting that the world will already miss the goal of full primary schooling for children, both boys and girls, everywhere by 2015, the second of the anti-poverty Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) adopted at the UN Millennium Summit in 2000, she stresses the imperative to make education central to a sustainable development agenda for the decades after 2015.
“As we advance towards 2015 and set a new agenda to follow, all Governments must invest in education as an accelerator of inclusive development,” she writes. “This Report’s evidence clearly shows that education provides sustainability to progress against all development goals. Educate mothers, and you empower women and save children’s lives. Educate communities, and you transform societies and grow economies.”
The report notes that in 2011, around half of young children had access to pre-primary education, but in sub-Saharan Africa the share was only 18 per cent. The number of children out of school was 57 million, half of whom lived in conflict-affected countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, only 23 per cent of poor girls in rural areas were completing primary education by the end of the decade.
“If recent trends in the region continue, the richest boys will achieve universal primary completion in 2021, but the poorest girls will not catch up until 2086,” it warns.
But the disparity is not only restricted to the developing world. Even in high-income countries education systems are failing significant minorities. In New Zealand, while almost all students from rich households achieved minimum standards in grades 4 and 8, only two thirds of poor students did.
Immigrants in rich countries are also left behind. In France, for example, fewer than 60 per cent of immigrants have reached the minimum benchmark in reading.
As for adult literacy, that has hardly improved. In 2011, there were 774 million illiterate adults, a decline of just 1 per cent since 2000. The number is projected to fall only slightly, to 743 million, by 2015. Almost two thirds of illiterate adults are women. The poorest young women in developing countries may not achieve universal literacy until 2072.

Edited By : Sonika

UN Report
http://www.mapsofindia.com/my-india/society/low-female-literacy-rate-and-its-impact-on-our-society-2